Semiconductors are scarce in Q1, 2021 In the first week of January, 2021, several media reported that many automotive manufacturers including Toyota, Honda and Ford, were urged to reduce their […]
Semiconductors are scarce in Q1, 2021
In the first week of January, 2021, several media reported that many automotive manufacturers including Toyota, Honda and Ford, were urged to reduce their car production due to the lack of supply of semiconductors. Semiconductors are essential components not only for small devices such as smartphones and laptop computers but also larger products and infrastructure such as automobiles and data centers. In this article, let us see the basics of semiconductors more.
What is Semiconductor?
According to Britannica, a semiconductor is defined as follows.
Semiconductor, any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Such devices have found wide application because of their compactness, reliability, power efficiency, and low cost. As discrete components, they have found use in power devices, optical sensors, and light emitters, including solid-state lasers. They have a wide range of current- and voltage-handling capabilities and, more important, lend themselves to integration into complex but readily manufacturable microelectronic circuits. They are, and will be in the foreseeable future, the key elements for the majority of electronic systems, serving communications, signal processing, computing, and control applications in both the consumer and industrial markets.
What are semiconductor materials?
Based on the same article above, semiconductor materials are described in the following way.
Solid-state materials are commonly grouped into three classes: insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. (At low temperatures some conductors, semiconductors, and insulators may become superconductors.) The figure shows the conductivities σ (and the corresponding resistivities ρ = 1/σ) that are associated with some important materials in each of the three classes. Insulators, such as fused quartz and glass, have very low conductivities, on the order of 10−18 to 10−10 siemens per centimetre; and conductors, such as aluminum, have high conductivities, typically from 104 to 106 siemens per centimetre. The conductivities of semiconductors are between these extremes and are generally sensitive to temperature, illumination, magnetic fields, and minute amounts of impurity atoms. For example, the addition of about 10 atoms of boron (known as a dopant) per million atoms of silicon can increase its electrical conductivity a thousandfold (partially accounting for the wide variability shown in the preceding figure).
The study of semiconductor materials began in the early 19th century. The elemental semiconductors are those composed of single species of atoms, such as silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and tin (Sn) in column IV and selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) in column VI of the periodic table. There are, however, numerous compound semiconductors, which are composed of two or more elements. Gallium arsenide (GaAs), for example, is a binary III-V compound, which is a combination of gallium (Ga) from column III and arsenic (As) from column V. Ternary compounds can be formed by elements from three different columns—for instance, mercury indium telluride (HgIn2Te4), a II-III-VI compound. They also can be formed by elements from two columns, such as aluminum gallium arsenide (AlxGa1 − xAs), which is a ternary III-V compound, where both Al and Ga are from column III and the subscript x is related to the composition of the two elements from 100 percent Al (x = 1) to 100 percent Ga (x = 0). Pure silicon is the most important material for integrated circuit applications, and III-V binary and ternary compounds are most significant for light emission.
Prior to the invention of the bipolar transistor in 1947, semiconductors were used only as two-terminal devices, such as rectifiers and photodiodes. During the early 1950s germanium was the major semiconductor material. However, it proved unsuitable for many applications, because devices made of the material exhibited high leakage currents at only moderately elevated temperatures. Since the early 1960s silicon has become by far the most widely used semiconductor, virtually supplanting germanium as a material for device fabrication. The main reasons for this are twofold: (1) silicon devices exhibit much lower leakage currents, and (2) silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is a high-quality insulator, is easy to incorporate as part of a silicon-based device. Thus, silicon technology has become very advanced and pervasive, with silicon devices constituting more than 95 percent of all semiconductor products sold worldwide.
Many of the compound semiconductors have some specific electrical and optical properties that are superior to their counterparts in silicon. These semiconductors, especially gallium arsenide, are used mainly for optoelectronic and certain radio frequency (RF) applications.
Material is only one aspect of semiconductors
In this article, we can learn semiconductor materials based on the Britannica, but there are several technologies when we think of semiconductors. For example, chips, design software, component design, wafer, foundry, test and manufacturing equipment. Therefore, we will see each technology in the other articles later. However, we can say that we always have to check news about a semiconductor in 2021.